Creative Biolabs

In Vivo Sampling

In Vivo Sampling

A suitable sampling technique is the foundation of a successful analytical method because it greatly influences the temporal resolution and accuracy of the analytical results. Creative Biolabs offers our technical expertise and experience to provide traceable, customizable in vivo sampling solutions. This will greatly advance your neuroscience project.

In Vivo Sampling Techniques

  • Microdialysis (MD)

MD is an efficient sampling technique. As a result of its inherent advantages of low invasiveness and continuous sampling capability, this technique has evolved into a promising platform for investigating a wider range of target substances in living organisms over the recent decades. Its applications include the monitoring of both endogenous and exogenous compounds, such as food bioactive, metabolites, biomarkers, and drugs.

1) MD Sampling Process

In a typical MD setup, the system generally consists of a syringe pump, a catheter (also called a probe), a perfusate reservoir, and a microbial sample collector. During the in vivo sampling process, one probe or a series of probes are implanted into the soft tissue. Based on the principle of dialysis, the MD sampling process allows for target molecules to continuously diffuse from the region of interest across the semipermeable membrane located at the tip of the U-shaped probe and finally collected in the microbial collector via a syringe pump for the subsequent off-line analysis.

Analysis of potential therapeutic biomarkers in blood and kidneys by dual-probe in vivo MD sampling.Fig.1 Analysis of potential therapeutic biomarkers in blood and kidneys by dual-probe in vivo MD sampling. (Kou, 2019)

2) Advantages of MD

MD possesses several advantages for in vivo sampling of endogenous substances in biological fluids. In addition to its good compatibility and easiness in implementation, there are two distinct strengths, including high temporal resolution and good spatial resolution.

  • Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME).

SPME is an advanced solvent-free sampling technique. It integrates sampling, isolation, and sample pre-concentration into one single step. In recent years, owing to its ultra-simplified workflow, miniaturized extraction assembly, and non-invasive sampling feature, SPME is becoming a promising in vivo sampling technique that circumvents some of the barriers faced by the MD approach.

1) Advantages of in vivo SPME

In comparison to the traditional SPME, first, in vivo SPME fibers are externally immobilized with a small amount of the desired sorbent as the extraction phase on a much thinner stainless-steel wire, allowing for implantation into biological tissues with minimal invasiveness. Second, diverse SPME workflows are well-suited for novel investigations for in vivo analysis of a broad range of compounds. In comparison to MD, in vivo SPME sampling also provides much higher temporal and spatial resolution. Apart from the aforementioned advantages, the portable and miniaturized SPME configuration and "lab on a fiber" pattern make SPME an appealing technique for repeated in vivo analysis, without complicated instruments. These features are especially advantageous for in situ or on-site in vivo analysis.

In vivo SPME workflow.Fig.2 In vivo SPME workflow. (Kou, 2019)

Advantages of In Vivo Sampling

In vivo sampling has several advantages, such as being easy to handle and non-invasive and having the potential to streamline the entire pretreatment process. Moreover, the in vivo sampling mode also endows the capacity of continuous real-time monitoring, which reduces the inter organism variation and results in improved observations.

In Vivo Sampling Services at Creative Biolabs

Creative Biolabs provides regular in vivo sampling services for various mouse and rat samples and tissues. Our team is constantly building new approaches, and we can also customize them to your requirements.

Creative Biolabs prides itself on being an innovator and problem solver in neuroscience research. We are happy to discuss your objectives so that we can determine which approach and technologies are best used to get the most reliable solution possible and in the most efficient way. Please do not hesitate to contact us for the detail of our in vivo sampling services.


  1. Kou, X.; et al. In vivo sampling: a promising technique for detecting and profiling endogenous substances in living systems. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2019, 67(8): 2120-2126.
For Research Use Only. Not For Clinical Use.
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