Creative Biolabs

Nuclear Inclusions Assay

Creative Biolabs is a global innovative biological company dedicated to providing professional and customized neurological research services. With our advanced platform and dedicated team, we aim to accelerate your neurological research projects by providing cost-effective nuclear inclusions (NIs) assay services.

Introduction of NIs

NIs are defined as abnormal substances in the nucleus that can be observed by light microscopy. The formation of NIs is closely related to the rate of protein production in the cytoplasm. The newly generated polypeptides do not have sufficient time to fold, resulting in abnormal protein aggregates. NIs are formed when these unfolded proteins with no biological activity enter into the nucleus. Two types of inclusions with different morphology and bioactivities have been reported, bona fide NIs and nuclear pseudoinclusions. Among them, bona fide NIs are formed by the accumulation of macromolecular substances in the nucleus, such as cytoplasmic material, viral particles, lamin, etc., while, nuclear pseudoinclusions are formed by cytoplasmic invagination into the nucleus. It is worth noting that bona fide NIs are both beneficial and misleading to disease diagnosis, and NIs in neural cells are closely associated with a range of neurodegenerative diseases.

NIs and Neurological Diseases

It is well known that the pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) is closely linked to the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates, which usually exist in the form of intracellular inclusions. Furthermore, neuronal intranuclear inclusions are histopathological hallmarks of several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. NIs are exciting findings for scientists investigating neurodegenerative diseases since the presence of NIs shortens the range of differential diagnostic considerations. Additionally, it also provides a promising strategy for exploring the nuclear mechanisms of NDs characterized by NIs.

Pathogenic mechanisms proposed in NIs. Fig.1 Pathogenic mechanisms proposed in NIs. (Woulfe, 2007)

Nis Assay Service at Creative Biolabs

In general, microscopic observation of various types of NIs and nuclear pseudoinclusions provides a wealth of diagnostically meaningful information. In addition to traditional microscopy techniques, Creative Biolabs has established a comprehensive platform that includes many other techniques, such as immunohistochemical staining and spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, we also combine immunological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB) to obtain relevant information on the folding state of proteins in NIs, paving the way for further elucidation of the role of NIs in NDs.

NIs play an important role in exploring NDs' mechanisms. As a reputable leader in the CRO service industry, Creative Biolabs is known for proven quality standards, technical expertise, repeatable data, and customer satisfaction. We specialize in providing customized NIs assay services to customers all over the world. If you have any difficulties in NIs-related projects, please contact us in time, our professional scientists will give reasonable support and help.


  1. Woulfe, J.M. Abnormalities of the nucleus and nuclear inclusions in neurodegenerative disease: a work in progress. Neuropathology and applied neurobiology. 2007, 33(1): 2-42.
For Research Use Only. Not For Clinical Use.
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