AD In Vitro Assay
The course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible process, and so far, there are no effective drugs and methods to treat it. Therefore, early diagnosis is crucial for AD treatment. At present, the main research focuses on the β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau protein markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). After decades of accumulation, Creative Biolabs has established an advanced platform for Aβ and tau detection. We are committed to providing professional AD in vitro testing services to customers around the world.
Introduction to AD
AD is the most common disease among the elderly and is defined as a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease. Clinical symptoms include progressive memory loss, language impairment, impaired executive function, and altered emotional behavior. AD is thought to be associated with a variety of risk factors, such as genetic factors, increasing age, poisoning, infection, head injury, pulmonary and circulatory abnormalities, and environmental factors.
Fig.1 The risk factors for AD. (Breijyeh & Karaman, 2020)
The pathology of AD mainly involves two proteins: Aβ and tau. Aβ is the main component of senile plaques and tau is the main component of neurofibrillary tangles.
- Aβ and AD
Aβ peptide is a major component of senile plaques in AD pathogenesis. Aβ aggregates assemble from Aβ monomers into various unstable oligomers, which then further aggregate to form pliable fibrils and finally insoluble fibrillar assemblies. Aβ is closely associated with neuronal and synaptic dysfunction during AD progression. In addition, studies have shown that Aβ oligomers are neurotoxic.
Fig.2 Neuropathological hallmarks that characterize AD. (Gomez, et al., 2020)
- Tau and AD
There are diverse forms of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on tau, such as phosphorylation, methylation, and glycosylation. Alterations in tau PTM, as well as tau aggregate deposition, were observed in AD. Elevated levels of phosphorylated tau were detected in the CSF of potential AD patients and correlated with cognitive impairment, suggesting that Tau hyperphosphorylation acted as an early event in AD pathogenesis. Therefore, phosphorylated tau in CSF is considered as a potential biomarker in AD diagnosis.
AD In Vitro Service at Creative Biolabs
Early and accurate diagnosis is very important for later supervision. At Creative Biolabs, we provide diverse cell culture models, especially AD in vitro models, which are beneficial to better exploring the mechanisms of AD. Moreover, Creative Biolabs has developed a variety of innovative testing methods, the services we provide include but are not limited to:
- Amyloid-beta Peptide Oligomerization Assay
- Toxic Amyloid-beta Peptide 1-42 Exposure Assay
- Amyloid-beta Induced Toxicity Assay
- Amyloid-beta Aggregates Determination Assay
- Tau Phosphorylation Assay
- Tau Hyperphosphorylation Assay
- Tau Aggregation Assay
- Tau Uptake and Seeding Assay
- Tau Clearance Assay
- APP Processing Assay
- Gamma Secretase Activity Assay
If you are interested in AD in vitro detection, Creative Biolabs will be your best choice. Please contact us in time for more details.
- Breijyeh, Z.; Karaman, R. Comprehensive review on Alzheimer’s disease: Causes and treatment. Molecules. 2020, 25(24):5789.
- Gomez, W.; et al. Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease: common molecular traits beyond the amyloid precursor protein. Aging. 2020, 12(1): 1011.