Septicemia is the clinical syndrome defined by the presence of infection and systemic inflammatory response to infection and the results from a complex interaction between the host and infectious agents. It is characterized by the activation of multiple inflammatory pathways, with an increased risk of mortality. The microorganisms involved in the pathogenesis of septicemia are Gram-positive bacteria-cocci (such as staphylococci, streptococci) and Gram-negative bacteria-bacilli (such as Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli), fungi (Candida), parasites and viruses.
Septicemia is not only a process of a systemic inflammatory response or immune disorder. On the cellular and molecular levels, the pathogenesis of septicemia is extremely complex, including an imbalance in inflammatory response, immune dysfunction, mitochondrial damage, coagulopathy, neuroendocrine immune network abnormalities, endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and other pathophysiological processes. Septicemia ultimately leads to organ dysfunction.
Fig.1 The pathogenesis of septicemia and programmed death receptor-1 and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) signaling blocking. (Huang, 2019)
Since septicemia is a serious disease characterized by stimulation of the systemic inflammatory response to infection, specific septicemia-related biomarkers have been utilized for clinical diagnosis for the rapid identification of infections, rational employment of antibiotics, evaluation of the affection of interventions, therapeutic monitoring of organ function for prognosis, and so on. Here we summarize the popular targets in septicemia research.
|Infection-Related Biomarkers||Procalcitonin (PCT), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Cytokines (TNF-α/IL-6), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)|
|Biomarkers Related to Inflammation Activation and Immune Imbalance||Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1), Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 (sTREM-1), Complement protein 3 (C3), Complement component 5a (C5a), Carboxypeptidase b1 (Cpb1), CD64, Presepsin (sCD14-ST), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)|
|Biomarkers Related to Organ Dysfunction||Angiopoietin (Ang), Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs)-MMP-2/ MMP-9, Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)-TMP-1/TMP-2|
With a deep understanding of septicemia pathogenesis, research on the treatment of septicemia has emerged. Antibiotics, antiviral drugs, vasoactive agents have been used for the traditional treatment of septicemia. Nowadays, Creative Biolabs provides products targeting inflammatory imbalance, coagulopathy and immune function inhibition such as cytokine antagonists, pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) antagonists, pathogen-associated molecular antagonists, recombinant human APC, recombinant human soluble thrombosis regulators (TM), cytokines, co-inhibiting molecular inhibitors and so on for our clients. For more services and products, please contact us for more information.
- Huang, M.; et al. The Pathogenesis of Sepsis and Potential Therapeutic Targets. International journal of molecular sciences. 2019, 20(21): 5376.