Muscular dystrophy (MD) is an inherited genetic condition that gradually causes the weakening of muscles. The MDs are caused by mutations in a large number of genes with different functions, encoding proteins of the contractile apparatus, structural proteins, enzymes or nuclear proteins. The most commonly encountered forms of the diseases in adults are myotonic dystrophy (MD), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and the large group of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). The most common childhood form is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).
Fig.1 Overview of inflammatory mechanism in DMD muscles and related potential drugs. (Miyatake, 2016)
The genomic mutations in MDs exert their pathogenicity at the level of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA). Therefore, the primary molecular targets in MDs are the affected genes and/or their respective downstream targets. Currently, most of the therapeutic strategies are focused on the mutated gene products or their downstream targets. Evidence has shown that the structural linkage between the muscle extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton is crucial in preventing the progression of MD. The primary mutations of enzymes involved in the protein glycosylation pathways have shown to disrupt the matrix-cell interaction in a certain group of MDs.
Fig.2 Illustration of proteins and potential targets involved in MDs. (Kinter, 2014)
In the past several years, viral and non-viral gene therapy methodologies based on adeno-associated viruses, naked plasmid delivery, antisense oligonucleotides, and oligonucleotide-mediated gene editing have moved from the laboratories to the clinical studies. Creative Biolabs offers comprehensive products as well as high-quality customized services for our clients. We have some of the best products and packages to aid your MDs research.
Summary of the Popular Objects in Muscular Dystrophy
|Calpain protease inhibitor||Collagen VI||Creatine|
|Fukutin-related protein (FKRP)||IGF1||Integrin α7β1|
|Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)||NFκB||NOX|
|β-Sarcoglycan||Corticosteroids prednisone||Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)|
- Miyatake, S.; et al. Anti-inflammatory drugs for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: focus on skeletal muscle-releasing factors. Drug design, development and therapy. 2016, 10: 2745.
- Kinter, J.; Sinnreich, M. Molecular targets to treat muscular dystrophies. Swiss medical weekly. 2014, 144(0708).