Neurological Diseases and Dysfunctions
Neurological diseases and dysfunctions are diseases that affect the brain and the central and autonomic nervous systems. To better understand the symptoms and treatments of neurological problems, it is essential to distinguish the various types of neurological diseases and dysfunctions.
Different Types of Neurological Diseases and Dysfunctions
- Addiction and Drug Abuse - A disease that affects people's brain and behavior, the patients cannot use drugs legally and rationally.
- Brain Damage and Spinal Cord Injury - Brain damage and spinal cord injury can affect people in different ways, including physically and psychologically and result in paraplegia or quadriplegia.
- Brain Tumors - Brain tumors are the abnormal growth of cells in the brain tissue. Brain tumors can be divided into benign and malignant. Primary brain tumors originate in the brain, while metastatic brain tumors spread to the brain from other parts of the body.
- Cognitive Dysfunctions - Cognitive dysfunction refers to defects in multiple aspects, such as attention, language learning, short-term and working memory, visual and auditory processing, problem-solving, and motor function. It has been served as the primary mediator of functional impairment in major depressive disorder.
- Developmental Disorders - Also known as neurodevelopmental disorders, developmental disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that involve serious impairment in different areas, including attention, memory, perception, language, and problem-solving.
- Epilepsy and Seizures - Epilepsy is a central nervous system (CNS) disorder due to synchronous neuronal activity or abnormally excessive in the brain.
- Infections & Inflammations - Encephalitis refers to the inflammation of the brain and is always induced by viral infection. Encephalitis usually causes only mild flu-like signs and symptoms but can be life-threatening in some cases.
- Mental Disorders/Psychiatric Disorders - A mental disorder is a behavioral or mental pattern defined by a combination of behaves, feels, perceives, or thinks. It causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
- Neuromuscular Disorders - Neuromuscular disorder (NMD) contains a series of diseases that impair muscle functions. Neuromuscular diseases affect the nerves that control voluntary muscles and the nerves that carry sensory information back to the brain.
- Neurodegenerative Disorders - Neurodegenerative is the process of the gradual loss of neuron structure or function, which eventually leads to cell death. The classical neurodegenerative disorders include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
- Stroke - A stroke is a serious life-threatening medical condition that occurs when the blood supply is interrupted or reduced. Effective treatments can avoid disability from stroke.
Treatments for Neurological Diseases and Dysfunctions
- Cognitive therapy treatments to reorient thoughts and behavior of patients.
- Lifestyle changes to avoid or minimize the impacts.
- Drug use includes neuroleptics and simple analgesics.
- Physiotherapy to manage the symptoms.
Neural Stimulation Technology
In recent years, neural stimulation technology has been served as the focus of the treatments against neurological diseases and dysfunctions. With the advances in technologies and safeties, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been an alternative option against a series of neurological diseases, including essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, as well as major depression. Equipped with MRI or positron emission tomography, DBS has emerged to a new therapeutic level.
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