The cerebral aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or ballooning of an artery in the brain that can put pressure on the surrounding nerves and brain tissues. It is also known as an intracranial aneurysm or brain aneurysm. There are three types of cerebral aneurysms: saccular aneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and dissecting aneurysms. Saccular aneurysms are the most common type, accounting for 90% of cerebral aneurysm cases.
A cerebral aneurysm accompanies robust structural changes in the vascular wall. Hemodynamic stress, inflammatory responses, extracellular matrix defects and degeneration have been suggested as the key components leading to the structural fragility in the arterial wall. However, the exact pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture remains to be discovered.
Fig.1 Structural alteration of a cerebral aneurysm.
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Pathophysiological Factors Involved in Aneurysm Formation
|Molecular and histological changes|
|Smooth muscle cell||
|Internal elastic lamina||