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Microdialysis Technique in Neurochemical Studies and Brain Research

As the motherboard of humanity's cognitive, sensory, and motor functions, the brain is an organ with extraordinary complexity. Its intricate network of neurons and the chemically-mediated communications they conduct pique the interest of neuroscientists worldwide for several reasons. In our quest to comprehend brain biology and pathologies, we've turned to an ingenious methodology known as microdialysis.

At Creative Biolabs, we are at the forefront of scientific discovery, utilizing a variety of cutting-edge technologies to enhance our understanding of the brain. In this article, we explore microdialysis technology and its contribution to neurochemical research and brain studies.

Our Services Descriptions
Brain Microdialysis Services Based on our reliable and stable microdialysis platform, whether you want to use this technology to capture changes in the chemical composition of the extracellular environment for subsequent analysis, or use microdialysis to directly deliver your pharmacological reagents to the relevant area, Creative Biolabs can always provide you with efficient microdialysis services and sensitive, repeatable data.
Neurochemistry Assay From neurotransmitter profiling to neuropeptide analysis, our assays offer detailed characterizations of neurochemical components, shedding light on their concentrations, interactions, and modulations. The neurochemistry assay offered by Creative Biolabs enables an extended understanding of the mechanisms of disease development and drug effects on neurochemicals.

Overview of Microdialysis Technique

At its core, microdialysis is an extremely sensitive sampling technique widely used for real-time in vivo studies in translational research. It is a powerful analytical technique for continuous monitoring of neurochemicals in the extracellular fluid of the brain. The principle behind microdialysis is very simple, but very effective. A small probe, usually consisting of a semi-permeable membrane, is inserted into the brain tissue. The probe is perfused with a solution very similar in composition to the extracellular fluid. As the perfused solution flows through the probe, it exchanges molecules with the surrounding tissue, allowing for sampling of the neurochemicals present in the extracellular space.

Microdialysis systems. (Stangler, Luke A., et al., 2021)Fig. 1 Microdialysis systems.1

Successful implementation of microdialysis requires careful consideration of several factors, including probe design, perfusion parameters, and analytical techniques. The choice of probe membrane material, length, and diameter affects its molecular permeability and sampling efficiency. In addition, optimizing perfusion flow rate, composition, and sampling interval is critical to obtaining reliable and reproducible results.

Creative Biolabs offers high-density neural probes stand as cutting-edge microfabricated instruments tailored for capturing neuronal activity from diverse depths within the brain's architecture, as well as from its surface.

Cat. No Product Name Applications
NE-200663P-CD NeuroFluor™ CDr3 Fluorescent Probe FC; IF
NE-200664P-CD NeuroFluor™ Live Neuron Fluorescent Probe Cell Imaging; IF
NTC-2102-P01C Naphthalimide-Styrene Fluorophore Probe (HeckGal), Two-Photon Probe Optogenetics
NTC-2102-P03C GlycoBODIPY™ Sugar Substrate-BODIPY Fluorescent Probe, Water-soluble Glycoconjugate Optogenetics

Analytical methods for quantifying neurochemicals collected by microdialysis probes range from traditional techniques such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to more advanced methods such as microdialysis coupled with on-line detection systems such as microdialysis mass spectrometry (MD-MS). Each method offers unique advantages in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, and temporal resolution, allowing researchers to customize their method to the specific requirements of their study.

Applications of Microdialysis in Neurochemical Studies

Founded on physicochemical principles, the microdialysis technique is a powerful tool in extracellular fluid (ECF) sampling, enabling us to evaluate the real-time changes occurring in the brain's neurochemical dynamic. Through the placement of a semipermeable membrane probe within the target brain region, it allows for the continuous sampling of the interstitial fluid, thereby providing real-time data on the concentration of a specific compound in the ECF.

The biological samples collected through this technique bear a reflection of the in vivo biochemical milieu, providing a nuanced exposition of the neurochemistry in the anatomical region from which they are derived. Thus, the advantage of microdialysis lies in its capacity to continuously track dynamic changes in neurochemical balance without significant disruption to the intrinsic state of the sampled tissue.

The potential neurochemicals observed via microdialysis include neurotransmitters, amino acids, peptides, metabolites, and ions, among others. The most common microdialysis applications include:

  • Neurotransmitter Test
    Microdialysis has been employed in preclinical models and clinical studies to investigate the neurochemical alterations associated with neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy. By characterizing disease-related changes in neurotransmitter levels, such as acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, some metabolic gases and many others, researchers aim to identify novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers.

Creative Biolabs has been involved in neuroscience research for many years and has accumulated a wealth of experience. We are proud to offer a wide range of neurotransmitter sensor products, including but not limited to the following:

Cat. No Product Name Applications
NTA-2012-ZP547 AAV9-TRE-GACh2.0 (or ACh2.0) [Acetylcholine Sensor] Neurotransmitter Sensor
NTA-2012-ZP548 AAV9-hsyn-GACh2.0 (or ACh2.0) [Acetylcholine Sensor] Neurotransmitter Sensor
NTA-2012-ZP563 AAV9-hsyn-ACh3.0 [Acetylcholine Sensor] Neurotransmitter Sensor
NTA-2012-ZP564 AAV9-hsyn-AChmut [Acetylcholine Sensor] Neurotransmitter Sensor
NTA-2012-ZP549 AAV9-hSyn-DA1m [Dopamine Sensor] Neurotransmitter Sensor
NTA-2012-ZP550 AAV9-hSyn-DIO-DA1m [Dopamine Sensor] Neurotransmitter Sensor
NTA-2012-ZP551 AAV9-hSyn-DA1h [Dopamine Sensor] Neurotransmitter Sensor
NTA-2012-ZP552 AAV9-hSyn-DIO-DA1h [Dopamine Sensor] Neurotransmitter Sensor
NTA-2012-ZP573 AAV9-hsyn-5HT2.1 [Serotonin Sensor] Neurotransmitter Sensor
NTA-2012-ZP574 AAV9-hsyn-DIO-5HT2.1 [Serotonin Sensor] Neurotransmitter Sensor
  • Metabolite Monitoring
    The distribution of drugs and their metabolites, as well as the resultant biochemical changes in the brain, can be adequately studied using this technique, allowing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of potential medicinal candidates to be accurately predicted.
    • The microdialysis technique can reveal the potential neuroprotective effects of novel therapeutic compounds in individuals suffering from stroke. By measuring glutamate release, a major excitotoxic player in ischemic stroke, researchers can assess the efficacy of a therapeutic in reducing the excitotoxic cascade, thereby limiting neural death.
  • Neurochemical Basis of Behavior

Innovative Techniques and Advancements

Technological advances in microdialysis combined with innovations in a variety of techniques have increased the sensitivity and specificity of neurochemical analyses, as well as the ability to measure multiple analytes simultaneously. Creative Biolabs' commitment to technological innovation has increased the precision and throughput of microdialysis applications, making it an indispensable tool for neurochemical research.

  • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Coupling
  • Advancements in Probe Technology

Novel probe designs, such as concentric and segmented probes, offer enhanced spatial resolution and targeted sampling in specific brain regions. Additionally, miniaturization of probes has allowed for minimally invasive implantation, reducing tissue damage and improving the overall well-being of experimental subjects.

In conclusion, microdialysis technique stands as a cornerstone of modern neuroscience, offering unparalleled access to the neurochemical landscape of the brain. At Creative Biolabs, we remain committed to pushing the boundaries of scientific exploration, harnessing the power of microdialysis and other innovative technologies to unlock the mysteries of the brain and pave the way for new insights into health and disease.

Reference

  1. Stangler, Luke A., et al. "Microdialysis and microperfusion electrodes in neurologic disease monitoring." Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 18.1 (2021): 1-14.

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For Research Use Only. Not For Clinical Use.
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