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Mechanisms of Neuroimmune Interaction in the Peripheral Nervous System

There is a complex and tight interaction between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the immune system, and this neuroimmune interaction mechanism plays a crucial role in maintaining the stability of the body's internal environment, responding to external stimuli, and in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. The mechanism of neuroimmune interactions in the PNS is a complex process that involves interactions between multiple components such as neurons, immune cells, and inflammatory mediators. This mechanism plays an important role in the maintenance of normal nervous system function, immune response and neuroregenerative processes.

Creative Biolabs delves into the mechanism of neuroimmune interactions that can provide new ideas and methods for the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases. As a partner, we offer the following related services to help accelerate the progress of your program.

Our Services Descriptions
Primary Neuronal Cell Culture Models Creative Biolabs has meticulously developed a range of primary neuronal cell culture models from different nervous system regions in human, wild-type or genetically engineered mouse models, rats, and rabbits, which can be used for disease modeling, mechanism exploration, and drug development of various nervous system diseases.
Immune Cell Profiling in Neurological Diseases Creative Biolabs employs cutting-edge technologies and expertise to provide in-depth immune cell profiling services. We are committed to advancing our understanding of the immune responses in neurological diseases and accelerating the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Neurodegenerative Disorders Drug Discovery Service Creative Biolabs focuses on providing one-stop-shop solutions for preclinical research into central nervous system disorders, rare diseases, and mental disorders, including drug discovery and development services. We have established a comprehensive in vitro and in vivo analysis platform and have provided a rich range of services for a large number of biopharmaceutical companies.

Introduction to Neuroimmune Interaction

  • First, there is a close connection between the PNS and the immune system. In the nervous system, neurons and glial cells are capable of releasing a range of cytokines, chemical mediators, and neurotransmitters, which regulate and influence the anti-inflammatory response and immune response. Immune cells such as macrophages, T cells, and B cells can also produce a range of cytokines, which are mutually regulated with the nervous system through a variety of pathways such as receptor-ligand interactions and neurotransmitter-mediated signaling.
  • Secondly, neuroimmune interactions play a key role in the process of disease onset and progression. In diseases such as infections, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases, immune cells are activated and release large amounts of inflammatory mediators, leading to inflammatory responses and immune damage in the nervous system. Neurons are directly or indirectly affected by these inflammatory mediators, leading to neuronal damage and death, which in turn affects the normal performance of neurological functions.
  • In addition, nerve regeneration is an important physiological process in which neuroimmune interaction mechanisms play an important role. After nerve injury, the neuroimmune system is involved in the entire process of nerve regeneration, including removal of abnormal neurons, repair and regeneration of neurons. Immune cells and inflammatory mediators can promote neuronal regeneration and repair, regulate neuronal function and connectivity, and so on.

A number of antibodies are important tools commonly used in neuroimmune research. You can browse the table below to see a list of our recommended products.

Cat. No Product Name Species Reactivity Applications
NAB-2011-ZP49 Mouse Anti-IFN-γ Monoclonal Antibody (CBP2133) Mouse ELISA; WB
NAB-2011-ZP50 Mouse Anti-IFN-γ Monoclonal Antibody (CBP2134) Mouse ELISA; WB
NAB20102081CR Mouse Anti-IFNG Monoclonal Antibody (CBP3003) Human Neut; ELISA
NAB2012144LS Rat Anti-Human CCL4 Monoclonal Antibody (CBP3756) Human WB
NAB2012147LS Rat Anti-Mouse CCL4 Monoclonal Antibody (CBP3758) Mouse Neut
NRZP-0922-ZP2985 NeuroMab™ Anti-IRG1 Antibody, Clone N26636 (CBP14296) Mouse WB; IP
NRZP-0922-ZP2986 NeuroMab™ Anti-IRG1 Antibody, Clone N18269 (CBP14297) Human WB; IP

Regulation of the Immune System by the PNS

Models Descriptions
Effects of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.
  • Activation of the sympathetic nerves usually leads to suppression of the immune system, e.g. through the release of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, which affects the activity and function of immune cells.
  • The role of the parasympathetic nerves is more complex and in some cases may promote an immune response, e.g. through the release of acetylcholine.
Role of the sensory nervous system Sensory neurons sense external stimuli and transmit signals to the central nervous system, but also interact directly with immune cells. For example, activation of injury receptors releases neuropeptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptides, which modulate immune cell function and inflammatory responses.

Impact of the Immune System on the PNS

Models Descriptions
Effects of cytokines produced by immune cells on nerves A variety of cytokines secreted by immune cells can affect the function of peripheral nerves. For example, cytokines such as interleukin-1 can cause pain sensitization of nerves, while some cytokines may also promote nerve repair and regeneration.
Effects of immune-related diseases on nerves In some immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, abnormal activation of the immune system may lead to damage and dysfunction of peripheral nerves. For example, diseases such as multiple sclerosis are caused by the immune system attacking the nerve myelin sheath.

Molecular Mechanisms of Neuroimmune Interactions

  • Interaction between neurotransmitters and immune receptors
    • Neurotransmitters can bind to receptors on the surface of immune cells, thereby regulating the activity of immune cells. Similarly, cytokines secreted by immune cells can interact with receptors on the surface of nerve cells.
  • Role of glial cells in neuroimmune interactions
    • Neuroglia, such as astrocytes and microglia, not only support and protect neurons, but also interact with the immune system. They can release a variety of cytokines and neurotransmitters that regulate immune responses and neurological functions.
  • Role of signaling pathways in neuroimmune interactions
    • Numerous signaling pathways are involved in neuroimmune interactions, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, etc. Activation or inhibition of these signaling pathways can regulate neuroimmune interactions.

Neuroimmune interactions help maintain normal physiological functions of the body, such as regulating the degree of inflammatory response and adapting to changes in the external environment. In many diseases, the mechanisms of neuroimmune interactions are disturbed. For example, in neurological diseases, immune responses may be involved in nerve injury and repair; in immune-related diseases, neuromodulation may influence the course of the disease.

Overall, the neuroimmune interaction mechanism of the PNS is a complex and sophisticated regulatory system, which plays a key role in maintaining the normal function of the nervous system, participating in the onset and progression of diseases, and promoting nerve regeneration. Through an in-depth study of the neuroimmune interaction mechanism, new ideas and methods can be provided for the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases.

Reference

  1. Terrando, Niccolò, and Valentin A. Pavlov. "Neuro-immune interactions in inflammation and autoimmunity." Frontiers in immunology 9 (2018): 374919.
For Research Use Only. Not For Clinical Use.
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