Creative Biolabs' scientific team provides a wide range of neuroinflammation assays, which enable researchers comprehensively understand the neuronal pathology and screen potential drug candidates.
Background of Neuroinflammation
Neuroinflammation is characterized as the activation of the innate immune response of microglia and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) in response to inflammation via enhanced levels of cytokines and chemokines as well as the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The homeostasis of neuroinflammation has a positive effect on the repair and functional recovery of the impaired brain. Although neuroinflammation plays a protective role in the brain temporarily, chronic neuroinflammation is considered one of the most important causative factors of neurological diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as psychiatric disorders, pain syndromes, and stroke. Neuroinflammation is a consequence of prolonged chronic stimulation of inflammation leads to recruitment of immune cells, woquleedema, tissue damage, and potential cell apoptosis. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory factors, including cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF, as well as ROS, inducible nitric oxide synthase, etc., will result in a high degree of chronic neuroinflammation, which impairs the neural system.
It's critical to choose an appropriate assay to evaluate the key components that contribute to neuroinflammatory. At the early stage of the drug development program, an in vitro assay is an ideal protocol to learn the mechanisms of action of neuroinflammation. The general approach to detecting neuroinflammation is summarized in the following steps. First, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are cultured to derive astrocytes and microglia. Then use lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or other pro-inflammatory agents to stimulate the in vitro cell cultures, which induces enhanced cytokine releases and nitric oxide production. After the LPS incubation, the cytokine levels released by iPSCs-derived astrocytes and microglia will be detected. Nitric oxide production can be determined by identifying the reduced nitrite in biological fluids in a microplate. By comparing to the control group, researchers could screen the prospective drug candidates.
Fig.1 Characterization of an in vitro model of neuroinflammation and expression of α7 nAchRs in mouse astrocytes. (Patel, et al., 2017)
In vitro neuroinflammation assays with proper cell culture models offered by Creative Biolabs provide global clients a convenient platform to screen promising drug candidates for multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Creative Biolabs' professional team guarantees you efficient and low-cost neuroinflammation solutions and is ready to answer questions about relevant expertise. If you have the intention to learn more about neuroinflammation assays, please click the following links or directly contact us, our team will get back to you as soon as possible.
- Cytokine Release Assay
- Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Inflammation Assay
- Nitric Oxide Production Assay
- Patel, H.; et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of astroglial α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are mediated by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway and activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Journal of neuroinflammation. 2017, 14(1): 1-15.