Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. The most common viral encephalitis agents are Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), herpesviruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), and arbovirus. Other relevant etiologies are cytomegalovirus (CMV), seasonal influenza, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), etc. The responsible virus may be detectable only in the brain and is either absent or transiently found in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) includes two major categories: classic paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (LE) with autoantibodies against intracellular neuronal antigens such as Hu and Ma2 and new-type AIE with autoantibodies to the neuronal surface or synaptic antigens.
Fig.1 Signaling pathways involved in the recognition of HSV. (Piret, 2020)
For instance, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a severe neurological disease caused by HSV. Signaling pathways involved in the recognition of HSV are shown in Fig.1. TLR2, TLR3, TLR9 signaling pathways are essential for effective antiviral immunity in HSV infection. In the cytosol, viral dsDNA also induces the synthesis of Cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, cGAMP) by Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS, cGAMP synthase), which activates the STING/TRIF/TRAF3 signaling pathway. The popular targets are listed in the table below.
Summary of the Popular Targets in Encephalitis
|AMPAR receptor||NMDA receptor||GABAB1 receptor|
Creative Biolabs provides a series of research tools and services needed to promote your research on encephalitis. Our product portfolio includes monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), polyclonal antibodies (pAbs), labeled antibodies, proteins, analytical kits, small molecule activators and inhibitors. For some targets, a ready-to-use catalog may not be available. Please contact us for customized services.
- Piret, J.; Boivin G. Immunomodulatory Strategies in Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2020, 33(2).