The nervous system and the neuroendocrine system are closely related, and both are closely related to maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunction may cause various neurological symptoms, such as headaches, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. These neurological manifestations can occur in any endocrine disease, including pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal and gonadal diseases. Therefore, it is beneficial to understand the neurological symptoms and signs caused by endocrine diseases when diagnosing and managing endocrine diseases.
The endocrine glands release hormones into the blood. This allows the hormone to spread to cells in other parts of the body.
Endocrine hormones help control mood, growth and development, the way organs work, metabolism and reproduction.
The Neuroendocrine System regulates the release of each hormone. This may depend on the level of hormones already in the blood, or the level of other substances in the blood (such as calcium). Many factors affect hormone levels, such as stress, infection, and changes in the water and mineral balance in the blood.
The typical mode of cell signaling in the Neuroendocrine System is endocrine signaling, which uses the circulatory system to reach remote target organs. However, there are other modes, namely paracrine, autocrine and neuroendocrine signaling. On the other hand, the pure neurosecretory signals between neurons belong entirely to the nervous system.
Autocrine—Autocrine signaling is a form of signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger which binds to an autocrine receptor on the same cell, causing cell changes.
Paracrine—An example is somatostatin, which is released by certain pancreatic cells and targets other pancreatic cells.
Diseases of the neuroendocrine system are common, including diabetes, thyroid disease, and obesity. Endocrine diseases are characterized by dysregulated hormone release (productive pituitary adenoma), improper response to signals (hypothyroidism), and lack of glands.
Other common diseases caused by endocrine dysfunction include Addison's disease, Cushing's disease and Graves' disease. Cushing's disease and Addison's disease are pathologies involving adrenal dysfunction. Cushing's disease is characterized by excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) caused by a pituitary adenoma, which stimulates the adrenal glands and eventually leads to excessive endogenous cortisol. Addison's disease is an endocrine disease caused by insufficient cortisol which is the result of adrenal insufficiency. Graves' disease involves hyperactive thyroid, which produces T3 and T4 hormones.
Creative Biolabs provides a complete list of antibody and protein products to help our customers better understand the interaction between the neuroendocrine system and the nervous system. Specifically, we provide marker antibodies related to (but not limited to) the following types of signaling pathways:
- Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad Axis (HPG)
- Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPA)
- Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis (HPT)
With our easy-to-use guide below, choose the best marker tools you need for your neuroendocrine system research.