Creative Biolabs

Exploring Neurodegeneration with Amyloid Stains

Neurological disorders, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, are a significant concern in today's biomedical field, attributed to the rising aging population globally. Among the hallmarks of many neurodegenerative conditions is the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates in the brain, often characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques. In this article, we embark on a journey through the realms of neurodegeneration, exploring the significance of amyloid stains in unraveling the enigma of these devastating conditions.

Creative Biolabs, a leading provider of comprehensive, high-quality research tools and service support for neuroscience research, provides the following related services to explore neurodegeneration.

Our Services Descriptions
Neurodegenerative Disease Modeling The models provided by Creative Biolabs can simulate human-related neurodegenerative diseases which provides an important basic platform for the study of pathogenesis and drug screening.
AD In Vitro Assay At present, the main research focuses on the β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau protein markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). After decades of accumulation, Creative Biolabs has established an advanced platform for Aβ and tau detection. We are committed to providing professional AD in vitro testing services to customers around the world.
Amyloid Targeting Therapies Study Investigation of the mechanisms of action (MoAs) that are known about amyloid allows for more effective drug target discovery and innovative therapy development. For this purpose, Creative Biolabs provides a wide range of in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo assays that allow researchers to have an optimized understanding of amyloid MoAs and thus drive early-stage drug development targeting neurotoxic molecular Aβ.

The Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration

Neurodegeneration refers to the progressive loss of structure or function, and in some cases, death of neurons. This pathological process underlies a vast array of devastating brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis.

Diverse pathological mechanisms trigger neuron loss in neurodegenerative diseases. Despite disease-specific symptoms, there is significant overlap in their underlying pathophysiology. The accumulation of misfolded proteins, leading to the formation of insoluble aggregates, is a common mechanism. These toxic protein aggregates often contain β-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils that disrupt cellular function. For instance,

These proteins, under pathological conditions, lose their natural conformation, misfold, and consequently, aggregate into amyloid fibrils.

Mechanism of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) aggregation. (Ono, Kenjiro, and Takahiro Watanabe-Nakayama, 2021)Fig. 1 Mechanism of Aβ aggregation.1

Amyloid Stains: An Essential Probe in Neurodegenerative Disease Research

Amyloid proteins play a pivotal role in the initiation and development of neurodegenerative diseases. Detecting and monitoring these misfolded proteins is therefore crucial for disease diagnosis, understanding disease progression, and evaluating therapeutic interventions. Amyloid stains are specific dyes used to identify amyloid deposits in tissue samples. They bind to amyloid fibrils, inducing a shift in their optical properties, thus making amyloid visible under polarized light microscopy.

Commonly used stains include Congo red, Thioflavin S and T and antibody targets Aβ peptides.

  • Congo Red: Upon binding to amyloid fibrils, Congo red exhibits characteristic birefringence under polarized light microscopy, thereby facilitating the visualization of amyloid plaques in tissue sections.
  • Thioflavin S and Thioflavin T: These fluorescent probes exhibit enhanced specificity towards beta-sheet-rich structures, enabling high-resolution imaging of amyloid deposits in tissue sections and live specimens. Moreover, the spectral properties of Thioflavin dyes facilitate multiplexing with other fluorophores, thereby enabling comprehensive characterization of pathological signatures within the neurodegenerative milieu.
  • Antibody targets Aβ peptides: The use of antibodies enables specific immunohistochemical detection of amyloid plaques in tissue sections.

At Creative Biolabs, we leverage the utility of amyloid stains to precisely detect these abnormal proteins in basic research. Below are some of the popular products we recommend.

Cat. No Product Name Species Reactivity Applications
NRZP-1222-ZP789 NeuroMab™ Anti-Aβ Antibody, Clone TAP01 Human In Vitro
NRZP-1222-ZP1037 NeuroMab™ Anti-Aβ BBB Shuttle Antibody, Clone TAP01 Human In Vitro
NAB2010591LS NeuroMab™ Mouse Anti-Human Amyloid Beta 1-40 Monoclonal Antibody (CBP2475) Human ELISA; IHC; WB; IP
NAB2010593LS NeuroMab™ Mouse Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-42 Monoclonal Antibody (CBP2476) Human; Rat IHC-P; ELISA
NAB2010607LS Mouse Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-10 Monoclonal Antibody (CBP2485) Human; Rat IHC-P; ELISA; WB
NAB2010620LS NeuroMab™ Mouse Anti-Human Amyloid Beta 1-15 Monoclonal Antibody (CBP2496) Human IHC-F; ELISA; IHC-P
NRP-0422-P643 NeuroMab™ Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-15 Antibody, Clone 3D6v1 Human; Cynomolgus Monkey ELISA; FC; IHC; In Vitro; In Vivo
NRP-0422-P941 NeuroMab™ Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-40 Antibody, Clone 2 E7 Human WB; ELISA; In Vitro
NRZP-1022-ZP1995 NeuroMab™ Anti-Abeta 38 Antibody, Clone NR7B8 (CBP17254) Human WB; IHC; IHC-P; ELISA
NRZP-1022-ZP2005 NeuroMab™ Anti-Abeta 40 Antibody, Clone NR80F2 (CBP17261) Human; Rat; Mouse WB; IHC; IHC-P; ELISA
NRZP-1022-ZP2006 NeuroMab™ Anti-Abeta 42 Antibody, Clone NR95F2 (CBP17262) Human; Rat; Mouse WB; IHC; IHC-P; ELISA
NRZP-1022-ZP2007 NeuroMab™ Anti-Abeta-pE11 Antibody, Clone NR73D8 (CBP17263) Human; Rat; Mouse WB; IHC; IHC-P
NRZP-1022-ZP2010 NeuroMab™ Anti-Abeta-pE3 Antibody, Clone NR-57 (CBP17265) Human; Rat; Mouse WB; IHC; IHC-P; IP
NRP-0422-P950 NeuroMab™ Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-12 Antibody, Clone 2H3 Human WB; ELISA; In Vitro
NRZP-1022-ZP3646 NeuroMab™ Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-12 BBB Shuttle Antibody, Clone 2H3 Human WB; ELISA; In Vitro
NRP-0422-P2292 NeuroMab™ Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-15 Antibody, Clone mAb158 Human Inhib; In Vitro; In Vivo
NRZP-1022-ZP3448 NeuroMab™ Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-15 BBB Shuttle Antibody, Clone 2B1 Human WB; ELISA; FC; In Vitro; In Vivo
NRZP-1022-ZP3641 NeuroMab™ Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-40 BBB Shuttle Antibody, Clone 2 E7 Human WB; ELISA; In Vitro
NRP-0422-P958 NeuroMab™ Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-42 Antibody, Clone NR219P Human WB; ELISA; In Vitro; IHC
NRZP-1022-ZP3653 NeuroMab™ Anti-Amyloid Beta 1-42 BBB Shuttle Antibody, Clone NR219P Human WB; ELISA; In Vitro; IHC

Amyloid Stains as Indicators for Neurodegeneration

The potential of amyloid stains as indicators for neurodegeneration has been highlighted in various scientific research studies.

Diseases Characterization The Role of Amyloid Stains
Alzheimer's Disease AD is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular Aβ plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein.
  • Detect and stage of Aβ plaques
  • Discover the deposition pattern of these proteins
  • Understand the disease's progression at a molecular level
Parkinson's Disease PD is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The aggregation of alpha-synuclein into insoluble fibrils, known as Lewy bodies, is a hallmark pathological feature.
  • Offer insights into distribution and density of Lewy bodies within the brain
  • Aid in the diagnosis and classification of PD
Huntington's Disease HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder. The disease is caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin (HTT) gene, leading to the production of mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT).
  • Facilitate the visualization of mHTT aggregates in the brain
  • Provide valuable insights into disease progression and potential therapeutic targets
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. While the precise mechanisms underlying ALS remain incompletely understood, the aggregation of misfolded proteins, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), is a key pathological feature.
  • Aid in the visualization of protein aggregates in ALS
  • Offer insights into disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic interventions
Multiple Sclerosis MS is an autoimmune-mediated neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the demyelination of axons in the CNS. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for protein aggregation in the pathogenesis of MS.
  • Allow for the detection of protein aggregates within demyelinated lesions
  • Study the relationship between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in MS

Amyloid stains have emerged as invaluable tools in unraveling the complex pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, offering insights into the aggregation of misfolded proteins and their role in disease progression. By harnessing the power of amyloid stains, researchers are poised to unlock new therapeutic targets and diagnostic strategies.

In collaboration with Creative Biolabs, we continue to push the boundaries of scientific discovery, driving innovation in the field of neurodegeneration research. Together, we strive to illuminate the path forward in the fight against neurodegenerative diseases.


  1. Ono, Kenjiro, and Takahiro Watanabe-Nakayama. "Aggregation and structure of amyloid β-protein." Neurochemistry International 151 (2021): 105208.
For Research Use Only. Not For Clinical Use.
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