Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis (HPT)
Neuroendocrine signaling integrates the functions of different tissues in a complex organism, leading to a coordinated response to a given challenge and improving the organism's adaptability. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is a typical example. HPA, HPG and HPT axes are the three ways of the direct neuroendocrine function of the hypothalamus and pituitary. The HPT axis, also known as thyroid homeostasis or thyroid-stimulating hormone feedback control, is part of a complex network of neuroendocrine functions. The HPT axis is responsible for regulating metabolism and responding to stress. The hypothalamic HPT axis setpoint regulation as well as thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism in peripheral organs is flexible and dynamic, and can make organisms adapt to various environmental challenges in the best way.
HPT RegulationFig.1 Thyroid homeostasis.
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis represents a classic example of an endocrine feedback loop. Thyroid homeostasis is produced by the multi-loop feedback system found in virtually all higher vertebrates.
The pituitary gland secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyroid-stimulating hormone), which stimulates the thyroid to secrete thyroxine (T4) and, to a lesser extent, triiodothyronine (T3). However, the main part of T3 is produced in surrounding organs - liver, adipose tissue, glial and skeletal muscle by deiodination from circulating T4. Iodination is controlled by a variety of hormones and nerve signals, including TSH, vasopressin, and catecholamines. TSH secretion is also controlled by thyroliberin (TRH), and its secretion is inhibited by plasma T4 and T3 in the cerebrospinal fluid (long feedback, Fekete-Lechan loop). Both peripheral thyroid hormones (iodothyronine) inhibit the secretion of pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (negative feedback). Therefore, all hormones reach equilibrium concentrations.
Creative Biolabs provides a complete list of antibodies and protein products to help our customers better understand the interaction between the HPG axis and neurological diseases. Our product portfolio includes neural antibodies, neural proteins and peptides, modulators for neurological signaling, neural cell lines, and so on.
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