The gustatory system or taste is the sensory system, which is partly responsible for the perception of taste (flavor). Mouthfeel refers to the sensation that is produced or stimulated by a chemical reaction between a substance in the oral cavity and the taste receptor cells on the taste buds located in the oral cavity (mainly the tongue). The taste receptors in the mouth can perceive five taste forms: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and savoriness.
In humans, taste is transmitted through three of the twelve cranial nerves. The facial nerve (VII) comes from the front two-thirds of the taste of the tongue, the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) comes from the back third of the tongue, and the branch of the vagus nerve (X) comes from the back of the tongue.
Neural Connections and Transmission
The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) provides information about the overall texture of food and the taste-related sensations of pepper or spiciness (from spices).
The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates one-third of the tongue, including the circumflex papilla. The facial nerve innervates the tongue and the other two-thirds of the cheek through the tympanic membrane.
The pterygopalatine ganglia are ganglia of the soft palate (one on each side). Larger petrographic veins, less palatine and zygomatic nerves are synapses here.
The special visceral afferents of the vagus nerve come from the epiglottis area of the tongue.
The tongue nerve is closely connected to the tympanic membrane, because it provides all other sensory information from tongue ⅔.
NST receives input from the amygdala (which regulates the output of the oculomotor nerve), the terminal cortex, the bed nucleus of the hypothalamus and the prefrontal cortex. NST is a topographic map that processes information about taste and senses (temperature, texture, etc.).
The hypothalamus connects hormones to regulate hunger and the digestive system.
Spinal ganglia are involved in sports.
The frontal lobe is considered to be the memory and association hub of taste.
The receptors for the basic tastes of bitter, sweet and salty have been identified as G protein-coupled receptors. Cells with a sour taste have been identified as a subgroup expressing the protein PKD2L1. It has been shown that the salty receptor sensitive to mouse amiloride is a sodium channel.
Patients with Addison's disease, pituitary insufficiency, or cystic fibrosis are sometimes allergic to these five main tastes.
- Age imbalance (complete loss of taste)
- Decreased physical strength (decreased sense of taste)
- Dysgeusia (distorted taste)
- Stomach pain (abnormally enhanced sense of taste)
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