Sodium channels are intact membrane proteins that can form membrane ion channels, allowing sodium ion to be conducted through the plasma membrane of cells. In excitable cells such as nerve cells, muscle cells, and certain types of glia, sodium channels are responsible for the rising phase of action potentials. Sodium channels are the molecular targets of drugs used to prevent acute pain and to treat arrhythmia, epilepsy, and bipolar disorder. Sodium channel blockers are also being developed for the treatment of chronic pain.
Sodium channels are classified according to their gating mechanism. There are two very different types:
Voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV): NaV opens by responding to membrane depolarization, allowing sodium to enter, and causing depolarization to propagate along the plasma membrane of nerves, muscles, and other electrically stimulated cells. NaV is present in the membrane of most excitable cells and exists as a heterodimer or heterotrimer in the form of 1α- and 1 or 2β-subunits. They play a role in many processes, such as feelings, emotions, thoughts and movements.
Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC): ENaC is present in the absorbent epithelium, such as the distal renal tubules, alveolar epithelium, and distal colon. It is responsible for sodium reabsorption. They exist in the form of heterotetramers of α-, β- and γ-subunits, mainly 2α:1β:1γ. ENaC is involved in various biological processes, including sodium homeostasis, salty taste, nociception, pain transduction, tactile and mechanical transduction.
Sodium ion channel research requires a series of scientific research products. Creative Biolabs has been devoted to the research and development of the most advanced reagents to assist ion channel research. Our product portfolio covers a complete list of sodium channel activators and blockers, monoclonal antibodies, labeled antibodies, proteins and assay kits.
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