Neural Crest Stem Cell Markers
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are the pluripotent stem cells unique to vertebrates and produced by embryonic ectoderm germ layers, which can differentiate into different cell types (such as melanocytes, peripheral and enteric neurons and glial cells) and give rise to multiple tissues and organs (include craniofacial cartilage and bones, smooth muscle). The emergence of neural crest is important in the evolution of vertebrates because many of its structural derivatives are characteristic of the vertebrate clade. Because of its contribution to a variety of cell lineages, understanding the molecular mechanism of neural crest formation is very important for researchers to understand human diseases. Studies have shown that abnormal neural crest development can cause neuro spinal neuropathy, including frontal nose dysplasia, Waardenburg-Shah syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome.
Neural Crest Induction
The molecular cascade of events is involved in establishing the migration and pluripotency characteristics of neural crest cells. The gene regulation network can be subdivided into four sub-networks, including Inductive signals, Neural plate border specifiers, Neural crest specifiers, and Neural crest effector genes. The putative neural rest gene regulation network in the vertebrate neural plate border kicks in.
Fig.1 Neural crest gene-regulatory network.
Neural crest cells have been shown to be associated with multiple neurocristopathies which result from the abnormal specification, migration, differentiation or death of neural crest cells throughout embryonic development. This group of diseases includes various congenital malformations that affect many newborns. In addition, their appearance is due to genetic defects that affect the formation of neural crest and the action of teratogens.
Waardenburg's Syndrome - Waardenburg's syndrome is a neurocristopathy that results from defective neural crest cell migration. The main characteristics of this condition include piebaldism and congenital deafness. The piebaldism is caused by a total absence of neural crest-derived pigment-producing melanocytes.
Hirschsprung's Disease - In healthy development, neural crest cells migrate into the gut and form the enteric ganglia. Genes that play a role in the healthy migration of these neural crest cells to the intestine. When this signal is disrupted in mice, ganglion disease or lack of these enteric ganglia can occur.
DiGeorge Syndrome - The symptoms of DiGeorge syndrome include congenital heart defects, facial defects, and some neurological and learning disabilities.
Treacher Collins Syndrome - Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS) is caused by a missense mutation in the TCOF1 gene, which causes neural Crest cells to undergo apoptosis during embryogenesis.
Creative Biolabs provides a series of research tools needed to study the function of neural crest cells. Our product portfolio includes cell lines from multiple species, optimized serum-free media, reliable cell differentiation media, media additives, and key cell markers and research antibodies.
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