Introduction to Sensory System
The sensory system is a key part of the nervous system that plays a significant role in transferring information derived from sensory organs. In general, the sensory system consists of chemical sense, vision, somatosensation, auditory and vestibular sensation. Moreover, pilot studies have demonstrated that the sensory system also contains a variety of sensory receptor cells, neural-related pathways, as well as brain sensory perception cells. Nowadays, the sensory system has been considered as a delivery system in the human body from the outside to the inside where we process information and create perceptions. In addition, the sensory system can detect a battery of internal and external stimuli, such as light, sound, or proprioceptors, and translates them into neural signals that can be interpreted by the nervous system.
Table 1. Sensory Systems.
|Sensory Systems||Modality||Stimulus||Receptor Types||Receptor Cell-Types|
|Somatosensory||Somatic Senses; Touch; Pain; Temperature Sense; Itch||Pressure; Thermal; Mechanical||Mechanoreceptors; Chemoreceptors; Thermoreceptors; Mechanoreceptors||Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons; Chemical Nociceptor; Polymodal; thermal; and mechanical nociceptors|
|Olfactory||Smell||Chemical||Chemoreceptors||Olfactory Sensory Neurons|
Sensory System Development
In the past few decades, our understanding of the development of the sensory system in the fetus, infant and adult, has progressed. Meanwhile, many advanced technologies for revealing the development process of the sensory systems have also been generated and broadly used. Sensory system development usually occurs in the early stages of pregnancy, and most neurosensory development occurs between 16 and 20 weeks. Furthermore, the development of the sensory system also speeds up the maturation of organs such as the kidneys, stomach, lungs, heart and blood vessels, and the brain. Recent reports have indicated that the sensory system is connected and integrated with other systems, such as the motor system and the cognitive system, to achieve more functions.
Fig.1 The workflow of sensory systems. (Pérez Fornos, 2019)
Currently, a wide variety of sensory system receptor cells, including mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and pain receptors, have been extensively studied for detecting different types of stimuli. For instance, the olfactory neurons bind to its receptors that recognize odors, triggering electrochemical stimulation of the nervous system. These stimuli alter the membrane potential of sensory neurons and induce an action potential. Also, a range of therapeutic approaches, like stem cell therapy, has been established for treating various neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous data have suggested that sensory systems, including hearing and vision, have brought new hope for drug development against chemosensory disorders. Meanwhile, a series of novel therapeutic targets have been confirmed that may be potential intermediate players in the induction of sensory system-related diseases.
Therefore, Creative Biolabs is pleased to share our extensive expertise in the nervous system and facilitate our clients’ sensory system research and project development. If you do not find the specific service item you are looking for, please directly contact us. We can design and customize your project and generate the exact solution you need.
- Pérez Fornos, A.; et al. Designing artificial senses: steps from physiology to clinical implementation. Swiss medical weekly. 2019, 149: w20061.