Creative Biolabs

Age-Related Macular Degeneration Drug Discovery Service

As a globally reputable service provider, Creative Biolabs is committed to providing customers around the world with one-stop age-related macular degeneration (AMD) research services to facilitate your project progress.

Introduction of AMD

AMD is a common eye disease that affects central vision. Additionally, it occurs when the macula of the retina wears down and occurs with age. Generally, AMD does not cause blindness, but it can cause serious vision problems. In addition, AMD is a major cause of vision loss in the elderly, imposing a heavy medical and socioeconomic burden. There are two main types of AMD: dry and wet. Most AMD patients have the dry form. Vision loss in this condition is usually gradual. The wet type is less common, but it usually causes more severe vision loss in patients than dry AMD. AMD is closely associated with a variety of factors, such as dysregulation of complement, lipids, angiogenesis, inflammation, and extracellular matrix pathways.

Progression of signs of AMD over time.Fig.1 Progression of signs of AMD over time. (Lim, 2012)

Therapeutic Approaches for AMD

Treatment strategies for AMD require a combination of factors, including diet, lifestyle, pharmacological interventions and genetics.

  • Drug therapy

One of the research areas focuses on statin therapy, which has been shown to be associated with possible drusen regression but needs to be further explored. In addition, there is evidence that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors and corticosteroid drugs inhibit neovascularization. Notably, two commonly used anti-VEGF antibody drugs have been found to have great potential in the treatment of AMD. What's more, other drugs, such as vitamins and minerals, are effective in preventing the progression of advanced ARMD.

  • Cell-based therapies

Over the past few decades, much effort has been devoted to developing new and more effective treatments, such as the implantation of cells. There are two types of cell-based therapies: stem cell therapy and non-stem cell therapy. Stem cell therapy is based on the delivery of new retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells into the subretinal space to improve the health of retinal photoreceptor cells. A non-stem cell approach involves implanting cells that generate the protective factors that are lacking.

  • Gene therapy

For AMD, the primary targets of gene therapy are RPE cells and photoreceptor cells. With currently approved ocular gene therapy treatments, subretinal injections are becoming more standard. There are three commonly used vectors in gene therapy: recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors, adenovirus (Ad), and integration-deficient lentivirus (IDLV). Moreover, several lines of evidence demonstrate the safety of the subretinal administration of the gene. Therefore, gene therapy is expected to be an important alternative for the therapy of AMD.

Animal Models of AMD

The multifactorial etiology of AMD and the lack of effective treatments have prompted the development of animal models as research and drug discovery tools. Currently, several rodent models have been developed that recapitulate key features of AMD and provide insights into its underlying pathology. These models have various features associated with AMD, including oxidative stress, hypoxia, immune dysregulation, genetic mutations, and environmental risk factors, which have contributed to significant progress in understanding the disease and identifying new therapeutic targets.

Mechanism of Action (MoA) Studies of Pathophysiology

  • Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress has been identified as a key trigger in the pathogenesis of AMD. Elevated levels of multiple antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in AMD donor RPE provide indirect evidence for increased oxidative stress. Furthermore, oxidative stress plays an important role in AMD due to the relatively high oxygen consumption of the retina.

  • Defects in RPE mitochondria drive AMD pathology

RPE mitochondrial defects are closely linked to AMD pathology. There is evidence that disruption of RPE mitochondrial structure is accompanied by alterations in the content of various mitochondrial proteins, as well as increased Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage associated with disease severity. In addition, damage to mitochondria will affect ATP production, leading to a bioenergetic crisis in the RPE.

Services for AMD Research

  • In Vitro Services
  • In Vivo Services
  • Ex Vivo Services
  • Discovery Services
  • Development Services

If you have any difficulties with your AMD research, please contact us for professional assistance and customized plans.


  1. Lim, L. S.; et al. Age-related macular degeneration. The Lancet. 2012, 379(9827): 1728-1738.
For Research Use Only. Not For Clinical Use.
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