Microglia are resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an immune defense role. They exist in a static state in healthy CNS tissues, actively investigate the surrounding areas after being injured or infected, and can be quickly activated in response to environmental changes.
Once a threat is detected, the microglia will undergo morphological changes. Activated microglia are divided into two states, M1 and M2, based on their morphology. M1 microglia are the cells that initially respond to injury and cause proinflammatory responses. Cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, as well as bacteria and cell debris, will polarize microglia to the M1 phenotype. M2 microglia are "alternatively" activated microglia, also recognized as anti-inflammatory microglia, that can promote the regression of neuroinflammation and stimulate tissue repair.
Fig.1 Schematic description of microglial activation and polarization in the central nervous system.
Summary of Microglia Markers Provided by Creative Biolabs
Steady-State Microglia Markers
|Secreted||BDNF IGF-I||BDNF IGF-I|
M1 Microglia Markers
MHC Class II
M2 Microglia Markers
|Cytoplasmic||Arginase 1/ARG1 Transglutaminase 2/TGM2||Arginase 1/ARG1 Transglutaminase 2/TGM2|
MHC Class II
YM1/Chitinase 2-like 3
Creative Biolabs provides a series of research tools needed to study the activation status of different microglia. Our product portfolio includes monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, labeled antibodies, proteins, analytical kits, and small molecule activators and inhibitors.